materi bahasa inggris kelas X

Sabtu, 22 Agustus 2009

TELLING SOMETHING IN THE PAST (RECOUNT)
Recount adalah salah satu bentuk laporan yang menceritakan mengenai kejadian yang sudah terjadi yang tujuannya untuk memberikan informasi atau menghibur pembaca.
Macam - macam Recount
Factual Recount lapangan yang berdasarkan kenyataan
Personal Recount lapangan yang tidak berdasarkan kenyataan
Imaginative Recount lapangan yang tidak berdasarkan kenyataan.
Ciri - ciri kebaharaan Recount
Use of simple past tense.
Temporal sequence.
Use of material processes.
Focus on specific participants.
Circumstances of time and places.
Generic Structure of Recount
Orientation : Pemberian informasi tentang siapa, dimana, dan kapan terjadi.
Even : Rekaman kejadian yang biasanya di sampaikan secure berretta.
Re-orientation : Kesimpulan ( akhir cerita )
Example Task Recount
Orientation On Wednesday, my students and I went to Jogjakarta. We stayed at Dirgahayu hotel which is not far from Malioboro
Even On Thursday we visited the temples in Prambanan. Tidied are three big temples, the Brahmana and syiwa temples, because went temple is being renovated.

Re-orientation On Friday morning we went to Jogja kraton. We spent about two hours there. We were lucky because we were led by a smart and friendly guide. Then we continued our journey to Borobudur. We arrived there at four p.m. at 5 p.m. We heard and announcement that Borobudur gate would be closed
In the evening we left for Jakarta by wisata bus.

SIMPLE PAST TENSE ( KATA LAMPAU )

It is used to keel lie event in the past.

1. Verbal sentence

S + V2 +... ( + )
S + Didn't + V1 +... ( - )
Did + S + V1 +... ( ? )

Example
She went to office yesterday (+)
She didn't go to office yesterday (-)
Did she go to office yesterday (?)

2. Nominal sentence

S + was/were + adjective/adverb/nom (+)
S + was/were + not + adjective/adverb/nom (-)
Was/were + S + adjective/adverb/nom (?)

Was (I, he, she, it)
Were (you, they, we)

Example
My brother was a doctor (+)
My brother wasn't a doctor (-)
Was my brother a doctor (?)


EXPRESSING REQUEST

When we have a request, we can use some forms of the request expressions.
Can you
Could you + V1 +....?
Would you Maukah kamu…?
Would you mind + V1 (ing) +....?
I wonder if you + V1 +.....?
Example
a. Can you open the window, please?
b. Could you raise your hand?
c. Would you mind sitting on my chair?


COMMAND AND PROHIBITION

a. Command (infinitive to)
- Cook there vegetables!
- Buy fruits in the market!
b. Prohibition (negative command)
Don’t + infinitive + o +!
- Don't come late!
- Don't eat in the class!
You + may not + infinitive + o +!
- You may not open the door!
- You may not close the window!
You + must not + infinitive + o +!
- You must not stand up!
- You must not sit down!

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
Digunakan untuk menyatakan perbuatan/peristiwa yang dilakukan sehari-hari.
1. Verbal
S + V1 (s/es) + O (+)
S + Do/does + Not + V1 + O (-)
Do/does +S + V1 + O (?)
Time signal

Every day
No noonday
Always
Sometime
Generally
After
Do = jamak (I, you, they, we)
Does = tunggal (he, she, it)
Example
a. She goes to school every day (+)
She does not go to school every day (-)
Does She to school every day (?)
b. We study English on Monday (+)
We do not study English on Monday (-)
Do we study English Monday (?)
Keterangan
Penambahan "s" atau "es" hanya untuk bilangan tunggal dan untuk kalimat pasifnya saja.
2. Nominal
S + tube (is, am, are) + Noun/adjective (+)
S + tube + Not + Noun/adjective (-)
Tube + S + Noun/adjective ( )
Example
My brother is a teacher (+)
My brother is not a teacher (-)
Is my brother a teacher (?)

PREPOSITION
Listen and Repeat
At = digunakan untuk menyatakan tempat dan waktu
On = digunakan untuk menyatakan waktu
In = digunakan untuk menyatakan tempat dan waktu

At half
At night
At Jakarta
On Wednesday
On 15th April
In Bandung
In 1956


EXPRESSING (LIKES AND DISLIKES)
The bold sentences in the dialogue constitute the expression of like and dislike
There are roof expressions of stating like and dislike.

Stating like
I really like... ( watching foot ball/chicken )
I'm quite keen on... ( hiking/tennis )
I'm fond of... ( playing foot ball/music )
Agreeing with like
So do I
Oh yes, I do too
So am I
Disagreeing with like
Oh, do you? I do not really
Oh, are you? I am not really
Oh, really

Stating dislike
I really don't like... (watching horror films)
I hate... (that man)
I dislike... (people smoking in the bus/ rock music)
I’m not particular keen on... (watching boxing)
I don't find... (hiking/that novel) very good/enjoy able.
I think... (his speech is rather boring)

Agreeing with dislikes
neither am I
neither do I
Yes, it's awful/rather terrible, isn't it?

Disagreeing with dislike
Oh, really?
Oh, don't you? I really like...
Oh, aren't you? I'm quite fee on!
Example
Give your comments by using like or dislike
1. You agree with the following statements. What would you say?
a. I don't find watching horror films very interesting.
b. I'm not fond of reading a comic
c. I especially dislike hard rock music
2. You disagree with the following statements. What would you say?
a. I'm not very keen on seafood
b. I think reading a novels is great fun.
c. I'm not over keen on swimming in the sea
Answer
1. a. Neither do I
b. Neither am I
c. Yes, it's awful, isn't it?
2 a. Oh aren't you? I'm quite been on seafood
b. Oh don't you? I really like reading a novel
c. Oh aren't you? I'm quite keen on swimming

PAST CONTINUES TENSE

It is used to express the activity which was still going on in the past or
It is used to express the activity that is being done wheel another activity is happened is the past.

S + Was/were + V1 (ing) +... ( + )
S + was/were + not + V1 (ing) +... (-)
Was/were + s + V1 (ing) +... (?)

Example
She was playing football this morning (+)
She was not playing football this morning (-)
Was she playing football this morning (?)
Keterangan
a. ketika ada dua kejadian berlangsung bersama maka keduanya menggunakan past continuous.
Example
- While Rudy was reading a book Karina was not watching TV
- Fini was watching TV while Manan reading a book
b. Tapi jika ada satu kejadian dan disusul dengan kejadian yang kedua maka kalimat yang pertama menggunakan past continuous yang kedua menggunakan past tense

Example
- While Harry was watching TV Rudy read a book
- When Fini come home nona was watching TV
While : Diikuti past continuous kemudian past tense
When : Diikuti past tense kemudian past continuous



DESCRIPTION

Text description bertujuan untuk menggambarkan seseorang, sesuatu, suatu tempat, seekor binatang seara khusus text description menyodorkan banyak informasi tentang orang, benda, tempat, binatang secara gamblang, rinci, dan dapat dipublikasikan atau digambarkan.

Generic structure of description
1. Identification : Pengenalan subjek atau hal yang akan dideskripsikan
2. Description : Menginformasikan ciri-ciri subjek contohnya sifat, psikologis, prilaku, tampilan fisik ciri-ciri khas, dan kualitas.
Description biasanya menggunakan simple present tense.

Example

Identification I have a set. It is a dog and I call it Crow.
Crow is a Chinese breed. It is small, fluffy, and cute. It has got thick brown fur. When I cuddle it, the fur feels soft. Crow does not like comes. Every day it eats soft done like steamed rice, fish or bread. Every morning i give her milk.
Description And bread. When I an at school, Crow plays with my cat. They got along well, and never fright maybe because Crow does not Carl a lot. It treats the other animals in our house gently, and it never eats shoes. Crow is really a sweet and friendly animal.






HOW TO DO THINGS (PROCEDURE)
Social function of procedure
The purpose of the social function of a procedure is to describe how something is done or made through a sequence of instructions.
Generic Structure of a Procedure
a. Goal: something we want to reach (to do/ to make)
b. Materials: and equipments needed
c. Steps: series of instructions using sequence of orders
Significant Grammatical Features
a. Use of simple present tense mostly in the form of imperative/command (positive and negative)
b. Use of the sequence of orders marked by the word: first, then, next, after that, finally, etc.
c. Use of must and must not
Example
Goal : How to make Sweet Coffee
Tools : 1. Cup
2. Spoon
3. under layer
Materials : Sweet coffee
Water warm
Sugar
Steps : 1. Pour coffee and sugar sufficiently into cup
2. Pour water warm into cup with mix well
3. Put cup in up under layer
4. Sweet coffee is really to be served.





PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSES
Digunakan untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang sedang terjadi.
S + tube (is, am, are) + V1 (ing) +... (+)
S + tube + not + V1 (ing) +... (-)
Tube + S + V1 (ing) +... (?)

Example
1. I am writing in the blackboard now (+)
I am not writing in the blackboard now (-)
Am I writing in the blackboard now (?)
2. She is reading a book this moment (+)
She is not reading a book this moment (-)
Is she reading a book this moment (?)

PASSIVE VOICE
Tube + T3

Active
Simple Present Tense
S + V1 (s/es)
She eats an apple on Sunday
Present continuous tense
S + tube + V1 (ing)
She is eating an apple now
Simple Past tense
S + V2
She ate an apple yesterday
Simple Future tense
S + Will/shall + V1
Shall (I, we)
She will eat apple tomorrow
Passive
Simple Present Tense
S + tube + V3
An apple is eaten by her yesterday
Present Continuous Tense
S + tube + being + V3
An apple is being eaten by her now
Simple Past Tense
S + tube (Was/were) + V3
An apple was eaten by her yesterday
Simple Future Tense
S + Will/shall + be + V3
An apple will be eaten by her tomorrow.


ONCE UPON A TIME (NARRATIVE)
General Characteristic of Narrative
1. Social function of Narrative
To entertain, amuse, and to deal with actual or vicarious experiences in different ways. Narrative deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kids which in turn finds a resolution
2. Narrative Text Type
Narrative text types are in the form of: fable, fairy tales, historical stories, folktale, legends, mysteries, etc.
3. Generic Structure of Narrative
Orientation : sets the scene and introduces the participants
Complication : a crisis cerise
Resolution : the crisis is resolved for better or for worse
4. Significant Language Feature of Narrative
a) Focus in specific and individualized participants
b) Use of relational processes (action verbs)
c) Use relational processes and mental processes
d) Use of past tense
e) Use of temporal conjunctions and temporal circumstances
f) Use of process (saying verbs) in direct and speech.
Example
Title Cinderella
Orientation Once upon a time there was a beautiful girl called Cinderella. She lived with her stepsister and stepmother. They were very bossy. She had to do all the housework.
Complication One day an invitation to the ball came to the family. Her stepsister did not let her go, so Cinderella was very sad. The stepsister went to the ball without her.
resolution Fortunately, the fairy good other came and helped her to get to the ball. At the call, Cinderella dance with the prince. The prince fell in love with her then he married her. They lived happily ever after.
BREAKING NEWS (NEW ITEM)
General Characteristic of News Item

1. Social Function of News Item
To inform the reader, listener or viewers the particulars/details of an event, accident or incident take place

2. Text Type
News Item (informative article)

3. Generic Structure of Narrative
Newsworthy event: First, write the country/city/place where the events took pace. Then, present the information on the who, when and the actual location of the events.
Background events: The body of the news items tells the events that took pace in the order that they happened. You may give general comments on the events and include quotes from people involved in the events
Sources: The events start to end. It usually in attends the comments from the public, like, the witnesses, police or expert

4. Significant Language Feature of Narrative
Action Verb
Adjective
Connectors to do with the time and sequence
Pronoun
Simple past tense
Adverbs
Compound and complex sentences



Example

Title Man jailed for striking RI maid
News worthy event SINGAPORE - A supervisor was jailed for two moths for repeatedly striking his Indonesian maid on the head and back with a television remote control, news reports said on Thursday
background even 1

Even 2

Even 3 Muhamad Shafiq Woon Abdullah admitted in a Singapore court he physical abused the woman on several occasions between June and October 2002, The straits time said.
The magistrate's court heard that Shafiq, 31 began striking Winarti, 22 about a month after she started working for him.
He hit her on the head with the TV sets sent control because he was unhappy with her work. On one occasion, he punched her on the back after
source Accusing her of daydreaming – DPA

0 komentar:

Poskan Komentar

Jadilah sahabat tuk teman mu, maka teman mu pun akan menjadikan mu sahabat

Catatan: Hanya anggota dari blog ini yang dapat mengirim komentar.